It is usual that we all pay attention to the main subject and consider the rest of the scene as minor elements surrounding it, however, this space known as negative influences dynamically in the composition and if you train the eye to watch, you can substantially improve your ability to composition and some additional dynamic characteristics of the image.
Negative space is more efficient when it has little detail, you should try to be uniform and contrast with the main subject. If not naturally present in the scene, you can modify it by changing the perspective or also using exposure techniques to under or over exposing the background and / or expand the aperture value in order to reduce the depth of field and generate diffusion .
One of the major contributions that the negative space gives the composition is the balance, as they may interact with the main subject, exerts a counter weight that can be selectively modified by manipulating the dimensions and position it within the frame.
The location of the elements in space, also suggests a dynamic direction in which theoretically could move the main subject generating the sensation of movement.
Negative space directs the viewer’s attention to the main subject and the proportion of each other, creates a dynamic tension that usually is exploited in advertising logos or text to place great weight on Mount banners.
Although I mentioned in a paragraph above that uniformity helps the negative space, this aspect does not necessarily have to be rigid, also it is I would find segmented by lines or tonal variations that interact with the main subject “pushing” toward one end or the other of the composition as if the latter, he could come alive in his bi-dimensional prison.
Some courses oriented drawing mode process right cerebral hemisphere strokes precisely recommend starting from the negative space.
So you can begin to appreciate the visual contribution of negative space, the first thing I recommend is to reflect on the natural tendency we all have to limit it. Note that the edges of your frame are the border of this species of antimatter, and if you set the limits of the box adjusted to the dimensions of the main subject, you will have prematurely denied him the opportunity to contribute to the composition.
Dare to expand your frames and gives more space to the “nothing” to freely experiment with the position of elements on the canvas, and when you do, do not be afraid. Modern digital cameras have excellent resolution that always gives you the option to re-frame your picture unlimitedly in an editing program, without involving the loss of substantial definition.