One of the basics in nutrition is to classify healthy foods in the diet and its function to get all the essential nutrients the body needs to grow, repair, get power or function properly. Hence all dietary guidelines establish a similar classification set out graphically in their pyramids or feed wheels.
It can be graded into five major food groups
The first four groups are the basic diet, that is, those who must consume daily, adequate to meet the needs of the organism (energy, plastic and regulatory) amounts. The fifth group consists of foods whose nutritional composition is largely irrelevant, or are exclusively energy (sugar, for example) and that prevents them recommended daily.
Within the energy necessary nutrients in healthy diets are the
mainly energy foods
Represent the contribution of more than 50% of the total energy of the diet. Characterized because its controlling content is carbohydrate (up to 85%) and have low proportion of lipids and proteins.
See also: What are carbohydrates.
Within this group are also fats and oils. They consist of lipids (100%) and the energy value is very high, while in some dietary guidelines are included in the group of complementary foods as their daily intake could lead to obesity.
See also: What are the types of fats and fat.
Within this group we find
These foods allow the plastic cover needs of the organism, ie tissue formation. Not only it is needed during childhood, but throughout life, the body is in continuous renewal process which is necessary to provide these foods.
See also: What are the proteins.
Are those whose most notable contribution of nutrients focuses on micronutrients that have a regulatory function of all body functions. This group includes vitamins and minerals and dietary fiber. The latter is not considered as a nutrient but its function in the digestive tract is essential.
See also: What are vitamins and concepts key to understanding the minerals.
See also: The benefits of fiber and fiber types.
Complementary foods are perhaps the most difficult to define. To oversimplify, they are those that can not be included in other groups and can not be considered as essential nutrients in our healthy diet. While there are some exceptions. For example
See also: The risks of dehydration.
If you want to know more about the food we need, we recommend you read our Guide 10 pillars of Nutrition.