In addition to its capture technology, microphones are also classified by their employer or sensitivity spectrum. In this feature it is known as directionality or polar (pie chart) pattern, and refers to the angular range of incidence of the sound to the sensitive membrane phono-captor.
It is important to recognize the behavior of each of these patterns as it based on this, its use for different scenarios uptake is determined.
Omnidirectional microphones as its name implies, covers a full spectrum of sensitivity three-dimensionally can imagine it as an area that receives sound waves coming from all directions. His capture 360 ° make this microphone, ideal for recording ambient sounds and also for lapel microphones instrument, since uptake is not interrupted when the speaker turns his head.
This pattern is often found in microphones diadem and be sensitive to pressure, they are not affected as much by the wind outdoors or the “pop noise” (caused by bursts of air originating from the pronunciation of certain consonants saturations as P and B), or by the proximity effect (bass boost when they head directly to a sound source).
Such microphones may also be used with adjuncts acoustic altering polar pattern making them more versatile.
Such microphones have very similar to omnidirectional characteristics, however, the combination of the technologies used for the previous and the bi-directional microphones, can restrict the range of capture and as in this specific case is reduced to some extent subsequent sensitivity of the membrane giving a degree of directionality to the microphone.
Also known as “Eight” by the similarity of the pattern of uptake with this number, bidirectional microphones have a symmetrical range uptake into front and back of the position are oriented and have side areas unvoiced.
The bi-directional are used in some headset microphones and models used in studio recording and transmission. Its dual capture feature is used in some stereo microphones and virtually all of lath eight teams have the pattern.
Cardioid pickup have a spectrum with a range of 120 degrees in the direction they are pointed. Its name precisely the characteristic similar to a heart that has its polar pattern shape.
His capture led helps reduce feedback and are used to capture isolated sounds in noisy environments. They are sensitive to the wind in the open and also prone to both the proximity effect and the pop noise.
Similar to the cardioid, hypercardioid have a tighter pickup angle (100 °), better reject the incidents but its design side forces them to get some sound out the back as shown in the graph.
Its improved ability to prevent feed back, make them the best choice for voice recording of a soft singer or to isolate a particular sound in an environment with excessive noise pollution.
Similar to the hyper construction, has a super cardioid pickup angle closed and directed it at par subsequent increases sensitivity. This feature improves the ability to remain deaf to the sound side incidents.
Directional microphones also known as “guns” (Shotgun), have a complex design that has a reduced pickup angle. Its tubular structure plays an important role in the ability to isolate the effects of lateral sound and thus, the extension of the cylinder is directly proportional to the charged capture angle.
This type of microphones are ideal for recording film, television or theater sound to where the sound can be captured remotely without the phone captor is exposed to the camera or to public view.
Depending on the type of recordings you do, you can purchase one or more microphones with different polar patterns that will help you face any situation getting the best sound quality for your production.